The U.S. Food and Drug Administration states that the Reference Daily Intakes, or RDIs, have replaced the federal government's previous Recommended Daily Allowances, RDAs, for all nutrients. The Institute of Medicine bases nutrient RDIs on a 2,000-calorie daily diet. IOM sets guidelines for healthy adults, children, pregnant women and aging adults.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration's recommended calcium intake for adult males and females between ages 19 and 50 is 1 g per day. The University of Illinois states that RDI for adult males and females is 1,200 mg after age 50, and it increases to 1,300 mg for pregnant and lactating women age 18 and younger. The RDI for babies up to 6 months is 210 mg, and 270 mg from 6 months to 1 year old. Children between ages 1 and 3 need 500 mg; ages 4 to 8: 800 mg; and 9 to 18: 1,300 mg.
The FDA's RDI for fats is 65 g or 30 percent of your daily calorie intake. These should be unsaturated fats, such as olive oil and fats such as nuts and seeds. Minimize your consumption of saturated fats such as butter, margarine, lard and other fats that are solid at room temperature.
The Institute of Medicine's fiber RDI for adult females between ages 18 and 50 is 25 g. Females older than 50 to 70 need 21 g of fiber. For males, ages 14 to 50, IOM suggests 38 g. Males from ages 9 to 13 need 31 g; after age 50, males should consume 30 g.
The IOM sets two recommended values for iron—adequate intake and upper limits. Males ages 9 to 13 and adult males between ages 19 to 70 need 8 mg of iron. Males ages 14 to 18 require 11 mg. IOM recommends 8 mg of iron daily for females ages 9 and 13, and those age 50 and older. Females between ages 14 and 18 should consume 15 mg, while those ages 19 through 50 need 18 mg. Babies need 0.27 mg up 6 months, then 11 mg daily up age 1 year. The RDI for children ages 1 to 3 is 7 mg and 10 mg from ages 4 to 8. IOM's upper limit for daily iron intake is 45 mg for adults and children over 14. The limit for ages 13 and younger is 40 mg.
For males and females between ages 9 and 50, IOM states that 1,500 mg of sodium is an adequate intake. After age 50, adequate intake is 1,300 mg and 1,200 at age 70. IOM sets the upper limit at 2,200 mg for males and females ages 9 to 13, and at 2,300 for all adults older than 13.
The adequate intake for babies is 120 mg, from birth to 6 months; from 7 months to age 1, it is 370 mg. From ages 1 to 3, children should consume 1,000 mg, and 1,200 mg from ages 4 to 8. The upper limit for ages 1 to 3 is 1,500 mg and 1,900 mg for ages 4 to 8.
- U.S. Food and Drug Administration: 'Daily Values' Encourage Healthy Diet
- University of Illinois: Calcium
- The Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes—Macronutrients
- The Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes—Electrolytes and Water
- The Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes—Elements