At one time or another you've experienced that burning pain, the pain caused by the acid from your stomach refluxing up into your esophagus. No doubt, you've used a medication, such as an antacid, an H2 blocker or proton-pump inhibitor, to help improve your symptoms. These medications work by lowering the acidity of your stomach, but if you use PPIs for too long, they may affect your body's ability to absorb certain nutrients.
Stomach Acidity and Digestion
Gastric glands in your stomach produce and secrete gastric juices not only when food hits your stomach, but also when you see, smell or even think about food. These gastric juices contain pepsinogen, which is the precursor to pepsin, the enzyme that digests protein, and hydrochloric acid, or HCL. The HCL from the gastric juice keeps the pH of your stomach at around 2.0 and is necessary for converting pepsinogen to pepsin, as well as dissolving food and killing microorganisms. Gastric juices not only help you digest protein, but also play a role in the absorption of nutrients including calcium, vitamin B-12 and iron. PPIs, such as omeprazole, may raise the pH of your stomach to more than 4.0, according to an article published in 2011 in "Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics."
Calcium and Low Stomach Acid
Long-term use of PPIs may increase your risk of hip fractures, according to an article published in 2009 in the "American Journal of Gastroenterology." PPIs may limit the absorption of calcium. If your stomach acid level is low, it is even more important that you get adequate amounts of calcium in your diet to support bone health. Adults need 1,000 to 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day. Milk, yogurt and cheese are the primary sources of calcium in the diet. One cup of nonfat milk contains 299 milligrams of calcium. Other nondairy sources of calcium include fortified soy milk and orange juice, tofu, turnip greens, kale and broccoli.
B-12 Needs Acid
Low stomach acid may lead to a vitamin B-12 deficiency. Vitamin B-12 is needed to make red blood cells and DNA. It also plays a role in neurological function. B-12 is naturally found in animal foods such as meat, poultry and dairy products. The HCL in your stomach, as well as the pepsin, frees the vitamin B-12 from these foods. However, foods fortified with vitamin B-12, such as breakfast cereals, are already in free form and do not require the acid or the enzyme to aid in its absorption. Adults need 2.4 micrograms of vitamin B-12 a day. Clams, salmon, tuna, top sirloin and low-fat milk are all good sources of the vitamin.
Acidity for Iron
Iron is necessary for transporting oxygen throughout your body. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia in the world, according to the Office of Dietary Supplements. Stomach acidity is essential for iron absorption. The pH of your stomach affects the solubility and absorption of iron in your small intestines. If stomach acidity is too low, your body may not be able to absorb adequate amounts of iron. Adults over 50 need 8 milligrams of iron a day, and women between 19 and 50 need 18 milligrams of iron a day. Fortified breakfast cereals, white beans, oysters, spinach, potatoes, chicken and beef can help you meet your daily iron needs.
- National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders: Gastroesophageal Reflux and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
- The Harvard Medical School: Do PPIs Have Long-Term Side Effects?
- Clinton Community College: Digestive System
- Alimentary Pharmocology and Therapeutics: The Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Increased Susceptibility to Enteric Infections
- Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: Gastric Secretion
- American Journal of Gastroenterology: The Effect of Proton-Pump Inhibiting Drugs on Mineral Metabolism
- Office of Dietary Supplements: Calcium
- Office of Dietary Supplements: Vitamin B12
- Harvard School of Public Health: Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Causes and Symptoms
- Information Center for Sickle Cell and Thalasemmic Disorders: Iron Absorption