Cloxacillin sodium is a type of antibiotic medication classified as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. Penicillinase is an enzyme produce by certain strains of bacteria that can deactivate certain types of penicillin antibiotics. Thus cloxacillin and other penicillinase-resistant antibiotics are useful in fighting certain bacterial infections such as Staphylococcus when other penicillins wouldn't work. Generally safe for most people, cloxacillin sodium may cause unwanted side effects.
Gastrointestinal Side Effects
Gastrointestinal or digestive system side effects can occur while taking cloxacillin sodium medications. Adverse reactions may include nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps and white or black patches on the tongue. In rare instances, pseudomembranous colitis may occur as a result of penicillinase-resistant penicillin use. It is an inflammation of the colon, causing symptoms such as gastrointestinal upset, dehydration and fever. It can also cause complications such as low potassium, low blood pressure, kidney failure and holes in the colon, according to MayoClinic.com.
Neurological Side Effects
Cloxacillin sodium may be toxic to the nervous system in high doses, particularly in individuals with kidney problems, according to the website RxMed.com. Signs of neurotoxicity may include confusion, fatigue, seizures and muscle twitching.
Blood and Kidney Side Effects
Cloxacillin sodium may negatively affect the blood and kidneys in some individuals. Kidney damage and inflammation may lead to a rash, fever, blood or abnormal amounts of protein in the urine and renal failure. A variety of blood disorders can occur when using penicillinase-resistant penicillins such as lower than normal amounts of important cells in the blood such as red blood cells, white blood cells and other immune system cells, according to the website RxMed.com.
Individuals allergic to cloxacillin, penicillin or cephalosporins should not use cloxacillin as a potentially life threatening allergic reaction may occur. Immediate and delayed allergic reactions are two types of allergic reactions that can occur when using penicillin medications. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions occur within 20 minutes of administration and delayed reactions generally occur two to four weeks after treatment, according to the website RxMed.com. Immediate allergic reactions may result in a red, itchy rash or hives, low blood pressure, swelling of the face, tongue or throat, breathing difficulties and shock. Delayed reactions often cause fever, weakness and fatigue, skin rashes and pain in the muscles, joints and abdomen. Seek medical attention if signs of an allergic reaction are present.