Any time you have problems with your vision, get it checked out by an optometrist to diagnose the condition and prevent further damage. Spots on the back of the eye can be the result of an injury or disease and should be evaluated to prevent blindness, according to Medline Plus. The spots may cause gradual vision problems or come on suddenly.
Diabetes commonly causes vision problems. According to MayoClinic.com, diabetic retinopathy can develop slowly creating black spots in the back of the eyes on the retinas. In addition to skin cancer that appears as irregular blotches on your skin, malignant cell tissue also can cause eye damage that starts out as black spots on the back of the eyes. Macular degeneration is an eye disease commonly associated with aging. The disorder affects the macula, which is the center of the retina located in the back of the eyes. Only 2 percent of people under the age of 60 develop macular degeneration, but that rises to 30 percent after the age of 75.
Symptoms are rare in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, according to MayoClinic.com. Symptoms often don't appear until you develop difficulty seeing, making reading, driving and every day activities more difficult. Age-related macular degeneration can take two forms that lead to wet or dry symptoms and also affect the ability to read small print. The affected eye may leak fluid and blood and initially cause straight lines to appear wavy. Central vision becomes blurry when the dry macular degeneration occurs.
The effects of the black spots eventually lead to vision problems and blindness. You may start to see floaters, or spots that seem to move across your field of vision. You may experience occasional bouts of blurred vision or develop weak night vision. Progressively cloudy vision changes that make it difficult to focus may indicate the beginnings of cancer-related cataracts. It is possible to develop an eye disease in one eye, allowing you to rely on the other eye for tasks that require visual acuity, according to the National Eye Institute.
According to MayoClinic.com, left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause bleeding in the eyes that causes scarring and eventually leads to retinal detachment. You must control your blood sugar levels and undergo regular periodic eye exams to prevent vision problems. Without sufficient eye protection, ultraviolet light seeps through to the retinas and burns through the thin layer of tissue that protects the backs of the eyes and leads to cancer.
While a family history of eye disease can cause early onset of vision difficulties due to black spots on the retina, lifestyle can play a role in the disorder, according to the National Eye Institute. Being overweight and smoking increase the risk of developing an eye disease such as macular degeneration. High blood pressure adds to the risks as well. Dietary factors that can help to keep eyes healthy and prevent the onset of the black spots include fish and dark green leafy vegetables.