Fouls in basketball often send the fouled player to the free throw line to shoot free throws. When a player is fouled while shooting and the shot is unsuccessful, he gets two free throws. However, a player does not have to be shooting to go to the free throw line. Non-shooting players that are fouled are awarded one free throw once the opponent's team has committed a set number of fouls. If he makes the first free throw, he gets another -- a "1-and-1." International basketball awards 1-and-1 free throws based on the number of fouls per quarter, while college and high school 1-and-1s are based on the number of fouls in a half.
At the international level, when the referee calls a non-shooting foul on the defensive team and that team has committed five fouls in the quarter, the player who was fouled is awarded one free throw. If he makes the shot, he gets another free throw. If he misses, the ball goes to the team that rebounds the basketball.
College basketball games consist of two 20-minute halves. Once a team has committed seven fouls in a half, the opponent is awarded a 1-and-1 free-throw situation. After the 10th foul by the opponent in a half, the team is given two free throws.
In professional basketball, teams go into a bonus situation once an opponent's team commits five fouls in a quarter. However, there is no 1-and-1 rule in the NBA. After the fifth foul, fouled players get two free throws. If the player misses the first free throw, he still gets the second one.
High School Basketball
In high school basketball, teams enter the bonus situation after the opponent's team has committed its seventh foul in a half. This is the same as college basketball, but high school basketball teams play four 8-minute quarters, not two 20-minute halves. Once a high school team has committed seven personal fouls in a half, the opponent shoots one free throw and gets the bonus if the first shot is good. Once 10 fouls are committed, the opponent gets two free throws.