The fatty tissue, known as lipids, is the compositional substance that provides the body its shape and protection. It has many functions, including carrying out core regulations such as producing sex hormones and protecting vital organs.
Lipids consist of various hydrophobic molecules. Many classes of lipids exist, but the main category found in the body consists of triglycerides, according to William D. McArdle in “Exercise Physiology." Triglycerides function as a form of energy that the body utilizes for the conduction of its movements and cellular processes.
Two types of fat exist in the body, essential fat and storage fat. Storage fat is considered excess fat and has no function other than providing additional insulation and serving as an energy reserve, according to "Nutrition." This extra fat is what comprises triglycerides.
Triglycerides are formed during esterification. During this process, water extraction occurs with an added molecule of alcohol. The structure of a triglyceride is composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid chains that have two or more carbon molecules. The triglycerides get stored in the adipose tissue of the body while some excess triglycerides, which "Nutrition" terms as the free fatty acids, get transported in the blood stream throughout the body.
When the amount of triglycerides is too high, it can increase blood pressure and bad cholesterol, which results in the build up of arterial plaque. This increases the risk for developing heart disease,
- "Nutrition"; Paul Insel et. al; 2007
- “Exercise Physiology"; Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance;William D. McArdle et al.; 2010