Anaerobic exercise involves high-intensity activity that is short-lasting. In anaerobic exercise, such as weightlifting and sprinting, your body’s need for oxygen exceeds the oxygen that is available. The term anaerobic means “without oxygen.” As with aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise temporarily changes your vital signs, including heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and temperature.
For the average adult, a normal resting heart rate is 60 to 100 beats per minute. With each heartbeat, your heart sends blood throughout your body to deliver oxygen to your tissues. During anaerobic exercise, your body’s need for oxygen increases. As a result, your heart rate increases in direct proportion to the intensity of the exercise, according to a webpage on the Montana State University website.
Blood pressure is the measurement of the blood’s force in your arteries. In general, normal blood pressure is defined as 120 over 80. The top, or systolic, number represents the pressure when the heart contracts. The bottom, or diastolic, number represents the pressure when the heart relaxes. Your body responds to anaerobic exercise by increasing systolic blood pressure. When you lift weights, the muscle contraction causes a decrease in blood flow. To compensate, the heart beats faster in an effort to deliver more oxygen to your muscles. The increase in systolic pressure after anaerobic and aerobic exercise is approximately the same.
Breathing is a complex physiological process that brings nutrients into your body. A normal resting breathing rate is between 12 to 18 breaths per minute. During anaerobic exercise, your breathing rate increases along with your heart rate. Your sympathetic nerves signal your respiratory muscles to increase your breathing rate in an effort to bring more oxygen into the body and the blood. In addition to bringing oxygen in, the increase in breathing rate also expels waste products such as carbon dioxide.
The average adult body temperature is 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, although temperatures between 97.8 F to 99.1 F are considered normal. During anaerobic exercise, the energy used to power your muscles during the intense bursts of movement is lost as heat, increasing your body temperature. That is why you sweat during exercise. Your body prevents your body temperature from getting too high by releasing the heat as sweat. As the sweat evaporates, it cools your body.
- Medline Plus: Vital Signs
- The University of New Mexico: Exercise and Resting Blood Pressure
- Montana State University: Heart Rate During Exercise
- MedlinePlus: Pulse
- Nutrition and You; Joan Salge Blake; 2007