Hi, I'm Dr. Steven Hausman of Hausman Technology Keynotes. And will be speaking with you about the pros and cons of steroid injections for teenagers with shoulder injuries. Typically, shoulder injuries in teenagers result from sports activities. They include dislocations where the joint comes out of the socket. Tears or inflammations of the tendons that form the rotator cuff which helps move and stabilize the shoulder. Tears or inflammations of the labrum, which is the tissue that surrounds the socket of the shoulder joint. And thrower's shoulder caused by repeated overhead throwing. While tears might require surgical repair, it is possible to treat the inflammation using rest, ice, heat, physical therapy, pain killer and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. If oral anti-inflammatory agents fail to correct the condition, the next step might be to inject steroids. An anti-inflammatory substance that is naturally found in the body in small amounts. The injection puts a concentrated dose of medication precisely at the source of the inflammation. However studies have shown that injecting high concentrations of steroids can soften joint cartilage and weaken tendons. This is less of a problem with older patients, but much more concerning in young individuals. Therefore teenagers should be advised to try all other treatment options before considering steroid injections. And even then, limit the total number of injections given.