The brain is the center of all neurological processing activity and can be affected by more than 600 known neurological disorders. Causes of neurological disorders include genetics, injury and environment with symptoms ranging in severity from curable, to controllable, to life-threatening. Symptoms depend on the part of the nervous system affected—central, peripheral and/or autonomic nervous system.
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Neurosarcoidosis is a complication of sarcoidosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder, as reported by the University of Maryland Medical Center. In neurosarcoidosis, the areas affected by the inflammation include any part of the nervous system. Symptoms of cranial nerve VII involvement that controls the muscles of the face include facial weakness, or palsy. Other cranial nerve functions subject to neurosarcoidosis show symptoms of confusion, dementia, vision problems, decreased hearing, vertigo and seizures. Symptoms of peripheral nerve neurosarcoidosis include weakness in the extremities, abnormal sensations and loss of movement in any part of the body. Pituitary gland involvement symptoms manifest as excessive fatigue and high urine output.
Apraxia, a neurological disorder, affects the ability to properly process sequence to perform familiar tasks. The National Institutes of Health reports on five types of apraxia, each with specific symptoms. Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia affects the ability to lick your lips, whistle or execute any facial movements on demand. Ideational apraxia manifests as the inability to plan and perform tasks in proper order. Symptoms of ideomotor apraxia include the inability to perform a learned task with the proper tools such as using a toothbrush as a comb. Limb-kinetic apraxia entails difficulty making precise arm or leg movements. Verbal apraxia symptoms involve trouble with mouth movement and speech coordination.
Arachnoid cysts are developmental cysts located on the arachnoid membrane between the brain surface and the cranial base, as reported by New York-Presbyterian Hospital. These cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs have the potential to cause severe neurological damage if left untreated. Symptoms of an arachnoid cyst include headaches, excessive cerebrospinal fluid collection called hydrocephalus, enlargement of the head, seizures, lack of muscle control and developmental delay.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affects the central nervous system and changes muscle tone. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons reports that CP can begin before birth or in the first years of life. Symptoms vary with the type of cerebral palsy. General CP symptoms include vision difficulties, seizures, mental impairment and shortened limbs. In spastic CP, expect symptoms such as stiff, contracted muscles of the legs, back and arms. Athetoid CP manifests as uncontrolled body movements due to low muscle tone that makes it difficult to walk or sit. Ataxic CP is rare and causes poor coordination and difficulty with depth perception. Mixed cerebral palsy symptoms combine spastic and athetoid CP causing both tight and loose muscles at the same time. .