Chronic kidney disease patients have dietary restrictions for phosphorus, potassium and sodium. Kidney disease is when your kidneys are unable to excrete wastes efficiently and regulate water and other chemicals in your body. High levels of phosphorous, potassium and sodium can cause high blood pressure, weak bones and nerve damage, according to the National Kidney Foundation. Dietary changes can keep kidney disease from getting worse.
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Foods Low in Phosphorus
Phosphorous and calcium are needed to build strong healthy bones. With kidney disease, your kidneys cannot remove the excess phosphorous very well. The National Kidney Foundation notes that too much phosphorous lowers levels of calcium in your bones, causing your bones to weaken. If your phosphorous levels are too high, substitute lower phosphorous foods. Substitutes include: skim and whole milk, ice cream, low-fat granola without raisins, quick oatmeal, asparagus, broccoli, boiled carrots, celery, mustard and turnip greens, cherries, grapefruit, canned mandarin oranges, 1/4 papaya, peaches and pineapple juice.
Foods Low in Potassium
Potassium helps with muscle contraction and regulates the heartbeat. Unhealthy kidneys can not balance the amount of potassium in your body. If potassium levels are too high, you may feel numbness, weakness, tingling, irregular heartbeat and even experience a heart attack, according to the National Kidney Foundation. To reduce potassium in high potassium foods, cut fresh vegetables such as potatoes into 1/8 inch thick slices and soak them in warm water for two hours. Low potassium foods include breads, graham crackers, rice, popcorn, cereal, green beans, canned beets, cabbage, coleslaw, cucumber, apples, fruit cocktail, canned pears, pineapple, raspberries, cheese and eggs.
Low Sodium Cooking
Puffiness, swollen ankles and shortness of breath can result from extra sodium and fluid buildup in your body. The best way to reduce sodium is to use herbs and spices, such as rosemary or curry, instead of sodium when cooking foods. Choose foods that have 35 mg or less for very low sodium, or 140 mg or less for low sodium. Limit high sodium foods such as cured ham and bacon, luncheon meats, hot dogs and pastrami, and processed foods such as cheese, canned soups and tomato sauce, and convenience foods.
Eating Out Smartly
Find a restaurant that has a variety of menu items. Skip appetizers and order foods that are either broiled or grilled. Request that your meal be prepared with no or lower salt seasonings and with sauce and gravy on the side. Drink mostly water, but you can also have non-cola drinks such as ginger ale, sprite, lemonade and tea. For dessert, avoid ice cream, cheesecake, pudding, custard and pies with high-potassium fruit.
Other foods to be cautious of are foods high in oxalates and purines. These foods contribute to kidney stone growth and increased blood and urinary uric acid levels, according to the Neprhology Physicians, LLC clinic. Foods high in oxalates are plant based and include boiled broccoli, boiled brussels sprouts, boiled cabbage, raw cucumber and boiled cauliflower. Purines are found in animal-based foods such as anchovies, sardines, haddock, herring, mackerel, ocean perch and shrimp.