A spinning reel hangs on the bottom of the rod and the axis of the spool is aligned with the rod. These are sometimes referred to as "open face" spinning reels. Most spincast reels sit on top of the rod but are enclosed(closed face)...the line comes out the front through a small opening. Both of these are backlash proof since the line flows off a stationary spool. A casting reel, or baitcaster sits on top of the rod with the axis of the reel perpendicular to the rod. These generally have better accuracy than spinning but are subject to backlash when the spool overruns the line and requires an "educated thumb" and substantial practice. Casting into a stiff wind is tough. There's much more to the uses of each.
NO USE Spinning Etc
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Spinning rods are made from graphite or fiberglass with a cork or PVC foam handle, and tend to be between 5 and 8.5 feet (1.5 - 2.6 m) in length. Typically, spinning rods have anywhere from 5-8 guides arranged along the underside of the rod to help control the line. The eyes decrease in size from the handle to the tip, with the one nearest the handle usually much larger than the rest to allow less friction as the coiled line comes off the reel, and to gather the very large loops of line that come off the spinning reel's spool. Unlike bait casting and spin casting reels, the spinning reel hangs beneath the rod rather than sitting on top, and is held in place with a sliding or locking reel seat. The fisherman's second and third fingers straddle the "leg" of the reel where it is attached to the reel seat on the rod, and the weight of the reel hangs beneath the rod, which makes for a more comfortable way to fish for extended periods. This also allows the rod to be held in the fisherman's dominant hand (the handle on most modern spinning reels is reversible) which greatly increases control and nuance applied to the rod itself. Spinning rods and reels are widely used in fishing for popular North American sport fish including bass, trout, pike and walleye. Popular targets for spinning in the UK and European continent are pike, perch, eel and zander (walleye). Longer spinning rods with elongated grip handles for two-handed casting are frequently employed for saltwater or steelhead and salmon fishing. Spinning rods are also widely used for trolling and still fishing with live bait. XXXXX Spin and bait casting rods Spin casting rods are rods designed to hold a spin casting reel, which are normally mounted above the handle. Spin casting rods also have small eyes and, frequently, a forefinger grip trigger. They are very similar to bait casting rods, to the point where either type of reel may be used on a particular rod. While rods were at one time offered as specific "spin casting" or "bait casting" rods, this has become uncommon, as the rod design is suited to either fishing style, and today they are generally called simply "casting rods", and are usually offered with no distinction as to which style they are best suited for in use. Casting rods are typically viewed as somewhat more powerful than their spinning rod counterparts - they can use heavier line and can handle heavier cover. XXXX Surf rods The most common type of sea rods are for surf casting. Surf casting rods resemble oversized spinning or bait casting rods with long grip handles intended for two-handed casting techniques. Generally between 10 to 14 feet (3 – 4 m) in length, surf casting rods need to be longer in order for the user cast the lure or bait beyond the breaking surf where fish tend to congregate, and sturdy enough to cast heavy weighted lures or bait needed to hold the bottom in rough water. They are almost always used in shore fishing (sea fishing from the shoreline) from the beach, rocks or other shore feature. Some surfcasters use powerful rods to cast up to six ounces or more of lead weight, artificial lures, and/or bait over one hundred yards.
Tackle Warehouse: Selecting the Right Rod [ http://www.tacklewarehouse.com/guides/rodselection.html] Youtube Outdoor Life: Baitcasting vs Spinning Rods - What's the Difference? [ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XJNhTds7pA] Bass Resource: Choosing Your Rods [ http://www.bassresource.com/fish/Fishing-Rods.html] Resources (Further Reading)