About one-third of American children and teenagers are overweight or obese, making childhood obesity the leading health concern for parents in the United States. Not so coincidentally, the American Academy of Pediatrics has estimated that the average child spends upwards of seven hours watching television, browsing the Internet and playing video games each day. While it’s tempting to turn to technology to help keep your children occupied, too much screen time may instill unhealthy habits that persist into adulthood. According to a review in Obesity in 2012, a lot of screen time may increase obesity risk.
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Sedentary Behavior, Obesity and Technology
An increase in exposure to technology goes hand in hand with a decrease in physical activity. As children spend more time sitting in front of the TV or computer, they spend less time outside running around and burning off calories -- and energy. Over time, combined with an increase in snacking, this can lead to significant weight gain.
Technology and Commercials
It’s not just the fact that increased technology use contributes to more sedentary behavior -- it’s also what children are exposed to while they watch TV. According to a report in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association in 2008, nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children’s programming are for low-nutrient foods that are high in fat, sodium and added sugars. This food marketing largely influences a child’s food preferences and, ultimately, his health. This is partly because, unlike adults, children have a hard time distinguishing between regular programming and advertisements.
Technology Increases Snacking
Increased time spent in front of the television or computer may also lead to increased snacking and mindless eating. A study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in 2014 monitored the habits of 1,003 sixth-graders. The researchers found that kids who spent more time in front of a screen -- whether it was a computer, TV or video game -- snacked more often and ate fewer healthy snacks than children who used technology less frequently. Another study, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2014, concluded that the type of program also influences snacking. More stimulating programs, which a lot of children’s shows tend to be, can lead to a dramatic increase in snacking.
Technology Interferes With Sleep
Having a television in your child’s bedroom increases the impact of TV watching on weight status, independent of physical activity. This may be due to the decreased amount of sleep associated with late-night, unmonitored television watching. A lack of sleep causes an increase in ghrelin, the hormone that signals you’re hungry, and a decrease in leptin, the hormone that tells you you’re full. On average, a sleep-deprived person will consume 300 extra calories per day, usually from high-fat foods, and snack more frequently than someone who is well-rested.
Limit Children's Screen Time
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children and adolescents spend a maximum of one to two hours in front of a screen, whether it’s a TV, computer or tablet. Encourage your kids to get off the couch by playing with them. Pick an activity that you both enjoy and work up a sweat together. Instead of forcing a new sport or activity on your child, let her pick and make a solid plan to engage. Block off this time and make sure all other distractions -- like your cell phone -- are put away.
REFERENCES & RESOURCES
- American Heart Association: Overweight in Children
- Obesity: Systematic Review of Effective Strategies for Reducing Screen Time Among Young Children
- American Academy of Pediatrics: Media, Kids and Obesity: It's Not Just About Couch Potatoes
- Florida Hospital: Childhood Obesity and Technology: What's the Connection?
- Obesity Action Coalition: Obesity Statistics
- Pediatrics: Children, Adolescents, Obesity and the Media
- Federal Communications Commission: Media and Childhood Obesity
- Parenting.com: Technology Blamed for Children's Lack of Exercise
- Medical Daily: Obesity in America Comes From Inactivity, Not Too Many Calories: How Technology Has Led to Widening Waistlines
- Journal of the American Dietetic Association: Nine Out of 10 Food Advertisements Shown During Saturday Morning Children's Television Programming Are for Foods High in Fat, Sodium, or Added Sugars, or Low in Nutrients
- USA Today: How Sleep Loss Leads to Significant Weight Gain
- Cornell University: Watch What You Eat: Snacking While Watching Action Movies Leads to Overeating
- Medical Daily: Kids' Health Is Hurt Most by Snacking While Watching TV, Not Playing Video and Computer Games
- Journal of the American Medical Association: Watch What You Eat Action-Related Television Content Increases Food Intake
- Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Passive Screen Time Associated With Unhealthy Dietary Consumption and Physiological Characteristics: A Closer Look at Childhood Behaviors