The DOT 5 panel drug screen is a screen for five classes of drugs. The test is mandated by the Department of Transportation to be given to employees of commercial driving companies. It has also been called the NIDA 5 and subsequently the SAMHSA 5 panels for the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, respectively.
Opiates are drugs that bind to some of the same receptors that the body's natural endorphins bind to. They are generally derived from opium, which is in turn derived from the opium poppy plant. Drugs in this class include opium, morphine, codeine, fentanyl and its derivatives, hydrocodone, oxycodone, methadone, heroin and meperidine. They are drugs of abuse for their euphoric effects, and used clinically to treat moderate to severe pain and several other conditions.
Amphetamines include drugs such as speed; methylphenidate, sold as Ritalin; dextroamphetamine and amphetamine, prescribed as Adderall; and methamphetamine. These are central nervous system stimulants which are widely abused and clinically indicated for the treatment of certain conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, and as adjunctive treatment of severe depression and narcolepsy, a sleeping sickness.
Cocaine, coke, blow or snow is a drug derived from the leaves of the South American coca plant. In medicine it is used as a topical anesthetic, particularly for the eyes, nose, ears and throat. Similar to amphetamines, cocaine is an addictive central nervous system stimulant.
Cannibinoids include marijuana and hashish. The SAMHSA 5 tests screen for one of the main, active ingredients from the plant from which these drugs are derived: delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or THC for short. These drugs may produce heightened sensory perception, mild euphoria, increased sociability, relaxation and increased appetite at lower doses. Higher doses produces perceptual changes, panic and depersonalization, or a feeling of distance and detachment from the environment.
Phencyclidine or PCP is a drug that was invented as an anesthetic in the 1950s. Street names include angel dust, hog, wack, lovely, embalming fluid and rocket fuel. The drug causes depersonalization. It also causes numbness, lack of coordination and slurred speech. Users may feel a sense of invincibility and strength.
- "Miller's Anesthesia"; Rondald D. Miller et al; 2009
- National Institute on Drug Abuse: Stimulant ADHD Medications--Methylphenidate and Amphetamines
- National Library of Medicine: Cocaine
- World Health Organization: Cannibis--A Health Perspective and Research Agenda
- Drugs.com: Phencyclidine