Numerous conditions can cause hypercalciuria, or too much calcium in the urine. According to the MedlinePlus, calcium helps a person's body build strong bones and teeth. Calcium also is important for heart function, muscle contractions, nerve signaling and blood clotting. Some individuals may have a medical condition in which the calcium is mobilized from the bones and tissues; it is then excreted from the body in urine.
Rickets is a childhood condition that can cause hypercalciuria. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, rickets is a disorder caused by insufficient vitamin D, calcium or phosphate and results in weak and soft bones. A person may not get enough vitamin D in his diet if he has trouble digesting milk products, fails to consume a sufficient amount of milk products, follows a strict vegetarian diet or fails to get adequate sun exposure. Common signs and symptoms associated with rickets include increased calcium in the urine, skeletal deformities such as bowlegs and scoliosis, bone pain or tenderness, dental deformities, delayed or impaired growth, muscle cramps, increased bone fractures and short stature. The UMMC states that certain laboratory tests, including a urine calcium evaluation, can help rule-in a diagnosis of rickets.
Kidney stones are a common cause of hypercalciuria. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases states that kidney stones are one of the most painful urologic conditions possible. Kidney stones are also one of the most common conditions of the human urinary tract. Kidney stones account for approximately 500,000 emergency room trips in the United States each year, reports the NIDDK. Kidney stones are small, pebble-like deposits that form in a person's kidneys. Some individuals may experience excruciating pain when passing a kidney stone. Common signs and symptoms associated with kidney stones include excess calcium in the urine, severe one-sided back, flank, abdominal and groin pain, pain when urinating, blood in the urine, nausea and vomiting, an unrelenting urge to urinate and, in some cases, fever and chills.
Hyperparathyroidism is a possible cause of hypercalciuria. According to MayoClinic.com, hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone, or parathormone, in the bloodstream that is caused by over-activity of one or more of a person's four parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are small, rice-shaped glands located in the neck that generate parathormone. Parathormone is responsible for regulating calcium levels in the bloodstream and certain tissues. Common signs and symptoms associated with hyperparathyroidism include excess calcium in the urine, frequent urination, fragile bones that are easily fractured, abdominal pain, fatigue following mild activity, weakness, depression, forgetfulness, bone pain, joint pain and loss of appetite. MayoClinic.com states that common complications associated with hyperparathyroidism include osteoporosis, kidney stones and cardiovascular disease.