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Can Taking a 5-HTP Daily Suppress Natural Serotonin Production?

by
author image Berit Brogaard
Dr. Berit Brogaard has written since 1999 for publications such as "Journal of Biological Chemistry," "Journal of Medicine and Philosophy" and "Biology and Philosophy." In her academic research, she specializes in brain disorders, brain intervention and emotional regulation. She has a Master of Science in neuroscience from University of Copenhagen and a Ph.D. in philosophy from State University of New York at Buffalo.
Can Taking a 5-HTP Daily Suppress Natural Serotonin Production?
5-HTP may help raise the brain's levels of active serotonin. Photo Credit Jupiterimages/Pixland/Getty Images

Serotonin is a mood-enhancing neurotransmitter that can help prevent depression and anxiety disorders. Doctors normally prescribe antidepressants as a way of raising the brain’s levels of serotonin when the levels are too low. 5-HTP is an over-the-counter serotonin supplement that may raise the brain’s levels of serotonin by converting into active serotonin once it crosses over from the bloodstream to the brain. Serotonin drugs are not likely to suppress natural serotonin production.

Serotonin, Anxiety and Depression

Low levels of serotonin can give rise to increased processing in the amygdala, the brain’s main fear-processing center. This in turn can lead to increased secretion of the stress hormones cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Low levels of serotonin may also affect dopamine levels, leading to a lack of motivation and a lack of interest in otherwise pleasurable activities.

Standard Treatment

Doctors normally prescribe serotonin reuptake inhibitors as a treatment for low levels of serotonin. The most commonly prescribed drugs are second-generation antidepressants, also known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These drugs block the serotonin transporter in the brain. The serotonin transporter deactivates serotonin by carrying it back into the cells. By blocking the transporter, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the brain’s levels of active serotonin.

Dietary Supplement 5-HTP

The dietary supplement 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, or 5-HTP, is an immediate precursor to serotonin. At the time of publication, 5-HTP was not regulated by the FDA, which means you coul buy it as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. 5-HTP is preferable to serotonin as a supplement because it can cross the blood-brain barrier. Though the effects of 5-HTP have been studied only in mice, the supplement may help increase the brain’s levels of serotonin in humans. As 5-HTP can have serious side effects, consult your doctor before you consider taking it.

Serotonin Suppression

There is no direct evidence suggesting that serotonin reuptake inhibitors or 5-HTP can suppress the brain’s natural ability to produce serotonin. However, there are theoretical reasons to believe serotonin drugs could help correct an imbalance. The brain tends to form habits. If fear processing in the amygdala is elevated over a long time period, the amygdala grows larger, which means fear processing is more likely to occur. Likewise, a long-lasting serotonin depletion could decrease the number of serotonin receptors in the brain. By correcting a serotonin imbalance, serotonin drugs could prevent growth of the amygdala and a decrease in serotonin receptors.

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