Hormones act on the body organs, affecting an array of functions. Water balance, the metabolic rate and reproduction are but a few of the many functions influenced by the hormones of the human body. Health care professionals prescribe hormone pills to treat a variety of medical conditions and control certain hormone-related bodily functions.
Estrogen is a female sex hormone normally produced by the ovaries. Medical professionals prescribe estrogen pills to treat menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, and to increase hormone levels in women with an estrogen deficiency, notes PubMed Health. Doctors also sometimes prescribe estrogen therapy to help prevent bone loss, or osteoporosis, in postmenopausal women.
The National Cancer Institute states that women with an intact uterus who take only estrogen for hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of cancer of the uterine lining, or endometrial cancer. Combination hormone replacement therapy with estrogen plus a progesterone-like hormone is not associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, according to NCI.
Women of childbearing age take estrogen/progesterone combination pills, more commonly known as birth control pills, to prevent pregnancy. The pills suppress ovulation, or the release of an egg from the ovaries, explains the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. In the absence of ovulation, pregnancy cannot occur. Women nearing the end of their reproductive years commonly use combination estrogen/progesterone pills to alleviate the symptoms of menopause.
Hydrocortisone, also known as cortisol, is a glucocorticoid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Doctors prescribe hydrocortisone for a variety of medical conditions. The National Library of Medicine encyclopedia, MedlinePlus, notes that hydrocortisone is used to replace cortisol in people with adrenal insufficiency, a condition wherein the adrenal glands fail to produce adequate levels of cortisol and other hormones. Because of its potent anti-inflammatory properties, doctors also commonly prescribe hydrocortisone to treat chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, including several forms of arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, asthma, seborrheic dermatitis, ulcerative colitis and multiple sclerosis.
Fludrocortisone is an oral hormone used to treat adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease. With adrenal insufficiency, both cortisol and aldosterone production drop to abnormally low levels, notes the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Fludrocortisone serves as a substitute for the hormone aldosterone, acting on the kidneys to promote conservation of water and salt.
Thyroxine is a thyroid hormone replacement pill used to treat an underactive thyroid gland, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs more frequently in women than in men and most commonly arises because of an immune system attack on the thyroid gland, notes the American Thyroid Association.