Excessive urination, also referred to as polyuria, is a symptom in which too much urine is secreted, which can result in having to urinate frequently. Several medical conditions can cause excessive urination in toddlers. When this symptom occurs, have the child evaluated by a physician because some causes can be very serious.
Polycystic Kidney Disease
This kidney disorder is characterized by multiple cysts on the kidneys, resulting in the kidneys becoming enlarged. This disorder is inherited. The exact cause has not been identified, but it is associated with brain aneurysms, colon diverticula, and cysts in the pancreas, liver and testes, according to MedlinePlus. People who suffer from this disorder can experience abdominal pain, excessive urination at night, drowsiness, joint pain, painful menstruation, blood in the urine, flank pain, high blood pressure and nail abnormalities.
You can treat polycystic kidney disease by preventing complications and controlling the symptoms. You can treat high blood pressure associated with this condition with diuretic medications, blood pressure medications and a low-salt diet. Antibiotics will treat any associated urinary tract infections. Cysts that cause an obstruction or are painful or bleeding can be drained, according to MedlinePlus.
Type 1 Diabetes
This chronic disease is characterized by the pancreas not producing adequate insulin, resulting in the body not being able to control blood sugar levels properly. This causes too much glucose accumulating in the bloodstream so the body is unable to use it for energy. Some toddlers will have no symptoms, while others experience fatigue, excessive thirst, unintentional weight loss, tingling or loss of feeling in the feet, hunger, excessive urination and blurred vision, according to MedlinePlus. You can treat type 1 diabetes with insulin, diet changes, exercise and self-testing blood sugar levels.
Sickle Cell Anemia
This inherited disorder is characterized by red blood cells forming into a crescent shape. Common symptoms include bone pain, delayed growth, fever, rapid heart rate, jaundice, abdominal pain, breathlessness, fatigue and paleness, according to MedlinePlus. Other symptoms include chest pain, excessive urination, blindness or poor eyesight, skin ulcers, excessive thirst and stroke.
You can treat sickle cell anemia by trying to prevent complications and controlling the symptoms. Folic acid supplements help produce red blood cells and hydroxyurea reduces pain episodes. Pain medications during painful episodes and adequate fluid consumption are common treatment methods, according to MedlinePlus. Vaccines and antibiotics are common, too, in preventing bacterial infections.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections are commonly diagnosed in children and occur when bacteria enters the urinary tract. It is estimated that approximately 1 to 2 percent of boys and approximately 8 percent of girls under age 5 have had at least one urinary tract infection, according to KidsHealth. Symptoms include fever, wetting problems, abdominal pain or pain in the lower back, urinating frequently and excessively, bloody or cloudy urine that has a foul smell and burning, stinging or painful urination. You can treat this infection with antibiotics.