The 100-meter sprint is one of the fastest sporting events. Given its brevity, you shouldn't expect a major calorie burn in a 100-meter sprint. You will burn a few calories in a 100-meter sprint, but not enough to have a significant effect on your body. Your exact calorie burn will be affected slightly by your weight.
According to the running website Cool Running, a 125-pound individual burns just six calories running 100 meters. A 150-pound person will burn just one calorie more, at seven calories for the 100 meter distance. If you weigh 175 pounds you can expect to burn nine calories in a 100-meter sprint. At 200 pounds your calorie burn would be about 10 calories. The speed at which you run is not significant in terms of burning calories, notes Cool Running, what matters is the distance covered.