"If I'm not sore, am I still building muscle?" If you've ever wondered this, it may be time to review your exercise plans and your method of evaluating your workouts.
Muscle soreness after a workout relates to the amount of stress you place on your body during exercise. Although the common "no pain, no gain" mindset holds some importance to progression, muscle soreness is not the sole indicator of an effective workout. Learning how to properly measure exercise progression and identify when your body adapts to your routine will assist you in creating effective workouts.
If you're not sore after a workout, that may mean your body is more acclimated to frequent, intense exercise, rather than serving as a testament to the effectiveness of your workout.
DOMS or No DOMS
The pain you feel in your muscles 24 to 48 hours after a workout is delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Muscle pain that appears during or shortly after a workout is called acute muscle soreness, and it typically dissipates within a few hours. Both types of pain have a similar origin.
Muscles become swollen and inflamed from the muscle fiber damage caused during your workouts. This is normal and sets the stage for muscles to become stronger as they grow and rebuild during the recovery period following exercise.
The presence or absence of DOMS largely indicates how accustomed your muscles are to the intensity and type of exercise you were performing before the pain began. However, it doesn't necessarily indicate the success level of your workout.
Muscular Soreness Level
Intense activities like sprinting and weight training cause the most damage to muscle fibers, since they place a greater amount of stress on your muscles. That can result in higher levels of muscle soreness (but again, not always).
The amount of soreness you experience relies on how efficiently your body adapts to your workouts. When your body adapts to a training program or type of workout, you experience a lesser degree of muscular soreness. Although your soreness decreases, it doesn't mean your workout lacks effectiveness.
This point in your training may indicate that you need to progress your training program by upping the intensity, volume or frequency. This should be done in carefully planned, gradual steps to ensure that you're not stressing your muscles beyond what is healthy and safe for them.
Measuring Workout Effectiveness
Instead of using muscle soreness to gauge your workout effectiveness, make use of other proven methods for testing progression. Measurements are most effective when they relate directly to your exercise goals. For example:
- If you wish to increase strength, use the one-rep maximum test. This refers to the heaviest amount of weight you can move in an exercise for one repetition.
- For measuring size gains, take circumference measurements and keep a record of them. Various body locations, such as the chest, biceps and thighs, are indicators of size gains.
- For weight loss, use a scale and record your weight (or use measurements as described above). Measure your progress every four to six weeks to assess the effectiveness of your workout plan.
Reducing Muscle Soreness
While some muscle soreness is acceptable (and even expected for a lot of beginners), too much muscle soreness can be detrimental to your fitness goals. When you try to exercise with sore muscles, you often unconsciously adjust your movements to minimize the pain.
This can result in poor posture, bad form and poor balance — all of which can lead to increased risk of injury. You can minimize this problem by taking steps to prevent or reduce muscle soreness.
Performing a warm-up before your actual workout can lessen the effects of DOMS. A general warm-up consists of using larger muscle groups through dynamic stretches. The length of your warm-up depends on your fitness level and the type and intensity of the workout that follows. Beginning exercisers require a longer warm-up period compared with advanced exercisers.
- Journal of Experimental Biology: Muscle Damage and Muscle Remodeling: No Pain, No Gain?
- Wentworth Institute of Technology: Muscle Soreness
- Massachusetts General Hospital: Muscle Soreness Not a Good Sign of Workout Gain
- Australian Journal of Physiotherapy: Warm-up reduces delayed onset muscle soreness but cool-down does not: a randomised controlled trial