Tomatoes are easily integrated into many foods. From pizza to salads, or even bloody mary cocktails, tomatoes are a daily staple of many people’s diets. Regardless of whether they're eaten raw or cooked, tomatoes have many nutrients that are beneficial to your health. Tomatoes also contain antioxidants like lycopene, which can help reduce cholesterol and prevent diseases like osteoporosis, cancer and Type 2 diabetes.
Tomatoes come in a variety of shapes, sizes, colors and types. Regardless of whether you’re consuming a giant beefsteak tomato or cherry tomatoes, their nutrition per serving is similar.
- Vitamin A: 25 percent of the recommended daily allowance (RDA)
- Vitamin B6: 6 percent of the RDA
- Vitamin B9 or folic acid: 6 percent of the RDA
- Vitamin C: 32 percent of the RDA
- Vitamin K: 15 percent of the RDA
- Manganese: 8 percent of the RDA
- Potassium: 10 percent of the RDA
Tomatoes also contain small amounts (between 1 and 4 percent) of other vitamins and minerals, including other B-complex vitamins, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc. Tomatoes are rich in carotenoids, like lycopene and β-carotene; phenolic compounds; and healthy fatty acids, like linolenic acid.
Health Benefits of Tomatoes
Although tomatoes are frequently used in sauces and other types of cooked foods, the nutrients and compounds in the raw fruit can positively affect your health in many ways. Raw tomatoes are often found in salads or blended into smoothies or juices.
Many of the nutrients, antioxidants and other beneficial compounds in raw tomatoes may prevent or help treat a wide range of health issues. The health benefits of tomatoes include:
- Increasing your production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter known for helping to regulate your mood, pain management and digestion. A 2016 study in the Journal of Food Bioscience assessed 38 different fruits and vegetables and found that the highest levels of serotonin were found in cherry tomatoes.
What About Cooked Tomatoes?
Carotenoids and phenolic compounds like α-tomatine, lutein, lycopene and β-carotene play major roles in the health benefits offered by tomatoes. Lycopene, in particular, is beneficial for human health. It has been shown to have antioxidant activities and can also help regulate blood sugar, cholesterol and weight.
Like all fruits and vegetables, the nutrients in tomatoes can be impacted by whether or not you cook them. This is because of the heat applied; in general, heat, regardless of whether it's sun-drying or stewing, can degrade a lot of the antioxidants in food. However, tomatoes are unique because quantities of certain antioxidants, like lycopene, actually increase during the cooking process.
Other antioxidants, like lutein and beta-carotene, also increase somewhat after exposure to heat during industrial processing. This means that even though tomatoes are a perfectly healthy food to eat raw, you can get just as many nutrients (or even more) by eating tomato products like canned tomatoes.
- AARP: Health Benefits of Tomatoes
- SelfNutritionData: Tomatoes, Red, Ripe, Raw, Year Round Average
- Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Carotenoids and Lycopenes Chemistry; Metabolism, Absorption, Nutrition, and Allied Health Claims—A Comprehensive Review
- Journal of Food Science and Technology: Bioactivities of Phytochemicals Present in Tomato
- International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research: Supplementation With Tomato-Based Products Increases Lycopene, Phytofluene, and Phytoene Levels in Human Serum and Protects Against UV-Light-Induced Erythema
- Journal of Nutrition: Tomato Juice Supplementation in Young Women Reduces Inflammatory Adipokine Levels Independently of Body Fat Reduction
- Nutrition Journal: Tomato Juice Intake Increases Resting Energy Expenditure and Improves Hypertriglyceridemia in Middle-Aged Women: An Open-Label, Single-Arm Study
- Biomedical Science Letters: Cherry Tomato Supplementation Reduces Cardiovascular Risk
- Taylor & Francis Group: Photoassimilate Distribution Plants and Crops Source-Sink Relationships: Tomato
- Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience: How to Increase Serotonin in the Human Brain Without Drugs
- Neurogastroenterology and Motility: Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Serotonin in Gastrointestinal Motility in Functional Bowel Disorders: Alterations in 5‐HT Signalling and Metabolism in Human Disease
- Food Bioscience: Simultaneous Analysis of Serotonin, Tryptophan and Tryptamine Levels in Common Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Japan Using Fluorescence HPLC
- Chemistry of Natural Compounds: Lipids From Lycopersicon esculentum Fruit Skin
- Foods: Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes
- Food Chemistry: Drying Effects on the Antioxidant Properties of Tomatoes and Ginger
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: Anticarcinogenic, Cardioprotective, and Other Health Benefits of Tomato Compounds Lycopene, α-Tomatine, and Tomatidine in Pure Form and in Fresh and Processed Tomatoes
- Psychiatry: Pain, Pain, Go Away: Antidepressants and Pain Management
- Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition: Tomato and Tomato Byproducts. Human Health Benefits of Lycopene and Its Application to Meat Products: A Review