The myelin sheath is a layer that covers and protects nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Myelin is made from a fatty, permeable substance and its primary function is to transmit impulses along the nerve cells that control various bodily processes, such as movement and vision. When the myelin is damaged, such as with diseases like multiple sclerosis, the impulses do not transmit correctly, and the bodily functions are impaired, according to MedlinePlus.
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Vitamins B-12, choline and inositol protect the myelin sheath from damage, according to nutritionist Phyllis A. Balch, author of "Prescription for Nutritional Healing." Specifically, the methylcobalamin form of vitamin B-12 could increase the production of proteins that regenerate nerve cells, which is particularly useful for the myelin sheath. The recommended dose of vitamin B-12 is 1,000 micrograms, taken two times per day.
Glycine is an amino acid necessary to build muscle and tissue. The amino acid is typically used for repairing connective tissues that have been damaged, including the myelin sheath. Glycine is particularly effective for treating the central nervous system function. Excessive consumption of glycine can cause fatigue, and an appropriate amount will improve energy levels. The recommended dose is 500 milligrams two times per day on an empty stomach.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Omega-3 fatty acids may repair the myelin sheath because it nourishes the protective coating's fat content, according to Balch. Omega-3 oils can be found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil and fish oil supplements. Balch recommends consuming the oil three times per day with meals and following the supplement's dosage instructions.