Pull-ups are among the most effective exercises to strengthen your upper body, arms and core, according to Brett Stewart, author of "7 Weeks to 50 Pull-Ups." When performed accurately, a pull-up safely challenges your biceps, lats, traps, rhomboids and abdominals. No single exercise is perfect for everyone, however, and pull-ups are no exception. While the exercise clearly offers benefits, consider some of the disadvantages of pull-ups before incorporating them into your strengthening routine.
Even a single pull-up requires significant upper body strength and control that many people -- particularly beginners -- don't have. Individuals who are new to strength training and lack the necessary arm, back and core musculature to execute a pull-up slowly and smoothly can feel self-conscious or embarrassed in a gym setting. The American Council on Exercise lists pull-ups as an intermediate exercise and advises beginners to develop their bicep and lat strength with less technically-challenging exercises, such as the seated row.
When technique is compromised, pull-ups can put tremendous strain on the shoulders, elbows and neck. Beginners -- or individuals who are fatigued -- might have difficulty maintaining proper alignment throughout a set a pull-ups. Proper form involves engaging the abdominal muscles, pulling the shoulders down and slightly back and keeping your head directly over your spine throughout every vertical lift. Poor form, including execution with the bar behind the neck, or with an overly wide grip, can be devastating for shoulder health. Overextending the elbows in the downward phase can cause soreness or pain in the elbow joints, and neck strain can result from allowing the head to fall forward.
If your primary goal for vertical pulls is to build bicep strength, chin-ups might be a better option than pull-ups. Pull-ups tend to target the lats slightly more than the biceps. In a pull-up, you grasp the bar with your palms facing away from you, and more force is applied to your lats than to your biceps. In a chin-up, your palms face toward you, and your biceps are likely to receive a greater workout.
Pain and Discomfort
Pull-ups challenge the entire upper region, and it is often difficult to distinguish between normal levels of soreness and outright pain. Many people find the forward-facing grip of a pull-up uncomfortable, particularly if they have suffered from shoulder injuries in the past. Listen to your body's warning signals and be strict about stopping if you experience sharp pain, muscle spasms or numbness.