Like the saying goes, do what you've always done, and you'll get what you've always gotten. But many people still fail when attempting to get fit, not because they didn't change their lifestyles, but because the lifestyle changes they made were unrealistic or misguided.
Read on to discover four things people often mistakenly think they need to do in order to get into better shape, why those things don't work and what you should be doing instead.
1. You DON’T have to follow a fitness fad.
Workout trends fall into and out of popularity like clothing styles. And every new workout claims to be better than the last. But often what's popular is based more on marketing than on science.
Not only do you not have to follow the latest workout trends in order to get into better shape, it's misguided to do so solely because it's popular. Regardless of what's currently "in style," you should follow workout strategies that are based on the scientifically backed exercise principles that have repeatedly been shown to produce the results you're after.
For example, if you're looking lose body fat, you must regularly be burning more calories than you consume, which is called being in a caloric deficit. So monitor what you're eating (see below for more nutrition advice) and make sure you're getting at least 30 minutes of cardio or resistance training on most days of the week. Sounds simple, but consistency is the key here.
Read more: The 19 Funniest Fitness Fads of All Time
2. You DON’T need to go on a super-restrictive diet.
In every fad diet, there's always a specific "enemy." If it's not a type of macronutrient (fat, carbohydrate, etc.), it's a type of food or a list of what's off limits.
Interestingly, some of the foods that are on the no-no list of one magic-bullet, cure-all diet are emphasized as "good" in a different magic-bullet diet. It's no wonder these diets never seem to gain any credibility among the legitimate medical and scientific community.
So what does work? In addition to practicing moderation, follow your personal preferences when it comes to your diet because that will ultimately determine long-term adherence.
"The research to date has shown that there are multiple dietary approaches that work," says Marie Spano, RD, a sports nutritionist who works with many professional, Olympic and college athletes.
"As the debate about macronutrient content is going on, keep in mind that the most important factor that will determine fat loss and improved health outcomes on any diet is adherence. So choose the diet plan that you can stick with until the weight comes off."
3. You DON’T need to take a “miracle” supplement.
Put simply, although there are some supplements that have been scientifically validated to aid in health and performance, there's no supplement you must take in order to improve your general health and physical appearance. The two things you do need to do, however, are:
- Consume a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and high-quality protein, while limiting refined sugars, junk food, hydrogenated oils and alcohol.
- Participate in some form of physical activity.
You most likely already knew those two things, but the goal of marketing is to make you think you need something more — like a special supplement. "There's nothing very professional or proprietary about 'eat your greens,' so they have had to push things further," says Ben Goldacre, MBE, author of "Bad Science."
"They have to manufacture complications to justify the existence of their profession. But, unfortunately for them, the technical, confusing, overcomplicated, tinkering interventions that they promote — the enzymes, the exotic berries — are very frequently not supported by convincing evidence."
But if you really feel the need to supplement, go with protein and/or caffeine. A quality protein powder can serve as the protein part of a meal, a snack or a pre- or post-workout shake. And if you're a coffee drinker, you'll love to hear that research has shown that caffeine can increase endurance, blunt pain and burn more fat.
According to Jose Antonio, Ph.D., CEO of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, "No one 'needs' to consume dietary supplements for sports. But don't confuse 'need' with the better question of whether a supplement will help you achieve a particular goal. For example, if you aren't a fish eater, how else will you get the right amount of the omega-3 fatty acids? If you're vegan, how will you get enough creatine, a substance that helps both the brain and your skeletal muscles? Supplements, of course. Supplements should be used judiciously as an adjunct to great training and a balanced diet."
Read more: The 10 Best Supplements
4. You DON’T have to be a gym rat or do extreme workouts.
It's commonly thought that in order to get into better shape, people must either work out 24/7 or do extreme routines like the ones we see athletes and bodybuilders doing in magazines and on television. This is simply not true.
If you're trying to become a bodybuilder or a high-level athlete, you have to exercise like one. However, if you're someone who's interested in simply getting into shape, you certainly don't need to become a "health nut" who lives in the gym.
A 2014 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology investigated the long-term effects of running as leisure-time physical activity on mortality. The researchers in this study found that running, even five to 10 minutes a day and at slow speeds (less than six miles per hour) is "associated with markedly reduced risks of death from all causes and cardiovascular disease."
Extending life expectancy isn't the only thing that should motivate sedentary individuals to begin some light running. Exercise also has specific positive effects on the brain.
Scientists once thought that our brains stopped producing new cells early in life, but more recently it's been discovered that we continue to manufacture new brain cells throughout our life. And the most potent natural stimulant of brain growth is — you guessed it — physical exercise.
In a 2011 study published in the European Journal of Neuroscience, researchers found that exercise increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice. BDNF not only stimulates the production of new brain cells and neurons, it also promotes their survival. Exercise generates neurons specifically in the hippocampus, an organ associated with memory, and these new neurons have been demonstrated to enhance learning.
Moderate physical activity seems to improve learning and thinking at all ages. In a large five-year study published in the Archives of Neurology, physical activity in later years was associated with lower risks of cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and dementia in general. Another 2001 study concluded that if exercise began by early middle age, it reduced the risk of developing Alzheimer's even further.
And studies dating back to 1981 have concluded that not only can regular exercise improve mood in people with mild to moderate depression, but it may also play a supporting role in treating severe depression. As for anxiety, research has shown that physical exercise reduces anxiety in humans by causing remodeling to take place in the brains of people who work out.
But remember, you don't need a crazy workout routine to reap all the benefits of exercise. Just get moving and keep improving.
What Do YOU Think?
Are you currently trying to get in shape? What kinds of things are you doing? Are you making any of the mistakes listed here? Are there any other things you're not doing to get in shape? What bad advice have you heard? Share your thoughts and questions in the comments below!
- International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.
- Leisure-Time Running Reduces All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Risk.
- Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice.
- Physical activity and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in elderly persons.
- Patients with Alzheimer’s disease have reduced activities in midlife compared with healthy control-group members.
- Understanding Depression
- Physical exercise prevents stress-induced activation of granule neurons and enhances local inhibitory mechanisms in the dentate gyrus.