What if we told you that you could save up to three lives in just one hour? Want in? Then schedule an appointment to donate blood today.
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Blood transfusions are essential for surgeries, traumatic injuries, chemotherapy treatments and chronic illnesses like sickle cell disease. Giving a unit of blood is one of the easiest yet most effective ways you can help out people in need.
If you're a first-time donor, consider this your crib sheet. We've got all the info you need to know before, during and after this safe and simple procedure.
In light of the coronavirus pandemic, LIVESTRONG.com is raising awareness about the urgent need for people to donate blood with our Give Blood, Give Back series.
Before You Donate
Step 1: Make Sure You Qualify
First, the basics: You have to weigh a minimum of 110 pounds and must be at least 17 years old (or 16 with parental consent).
You should also be feeling healthy. Stay home if you have the flu, a cold, a productive cough or a fever over 99.5 degrees (allergies are OK). Certain diseases — including hepatitis, some STIs and specific kinds of cancer — might affect your ability to donate, so check the American Red Cross website for details.
Although most medications won't influence your eligibility, there are exceptions. For example, if you're taking oral antibiotics for an infection, you should hold off on giving blood until you've completed treatment. (For injected antibiotics, you need to wait 10 days post-treatment.) There are other meds, as well as a few vaccines, that preclude donation — an alphabetical list is available from the American Red Cross or your local blood center's website.
Other considerations that might require deferring your donation include low iron, recent travel to a malaria-risk country, certain types of sexual activity, recently getting a tattoo and being pregnant or having recently given birth. People who have used IV drugs are not eligible for donation. For answers to more FAQs, check out the donor section of the America's Blood Centers' website.
Recent Changes to Blood Donor Eligibility Guidelines
In light of the coronavirus pandemic, the FDA has announced looser restrictions on who can donate blood, including the following changes:
- If you're a man, you must wait three months (instead of a year) after having sex with another man
- If you're a woman, you must wait three months (instead of a year) after having sex with a man who has had sex with other men
- You must wait three months (instead of a year) after getting a tattoo or piercing
- You must wait three months (instead of a year) after traveling to a malaria-endemic area
Blood donation organizations are not required to implement these changes, so it's best to check with your donation center if you fall into any of the above categories.
Step 2: Book an Appointment
Even though it only takes about 10 minutes to draw a unit of blood, set aside an hour for the appointment so you have time to answer the screening questions, get a mini physical (more on that later) and then recover in the refreshment room afterward.
Encourage your partner or a friend to make an appointment for the same time so you can go together.
Step 3: Rest Up
The day before your appointment, forgo any partying (alcohol dehydrates you) and get a good night's sleep. This helps prevent adverse reactions like dizziness or fainting.
When you get dressed, choose comfortable clothes with short sleeves or sleeves you can roll up past your elbow, so the technician can easily insert the needle.
Step 4: Fuel Your Body
An hour or two before your appointment, drink an extra 16 ounces of water.
"A unit of blood is 500 milliliters, which means we are extracting the equivalent of two soda cans' worth of fluid from your body," says Yvette Miller, MD, executive medical director of the American Red Cross. "If you're not well hydrated, you might feel lightheaded."
Just avoid downing an entire bottle of water immediately before your appointment — that way, you won't have to pee in the middle of the procedure.
While it's fine to have a cup of coffee beforehand, keep your caffeine intake in check.
"Caffeine increases your heart rate, and if your heart rate is too high, you won't be able to donate," Dr. Miller says.
You should also eat a small, well-balanced meal to keep your blood sugar stable and prevent nausea.
Fatty foods can make it difficult to perform the pre-donation safety screening on your blood (we'll get to that in the next section), so skip the burgers, fries and ice cream. And chow down at least an hour beforehand to give yourself time to digest.
Step 5: Pack Your Bag
Bring a government-issued ID, like a driver's license or passport, or a school photo ID if you're in college, as well as a list of medications you're taking.
And take along something relaxing to do while your blood is drawn, like a book, or your (fully charged) phone and a pair of headphones so you can listen to music or a podcast, watch a movie or call a friend.
It's safe to donate blood during the novel coronavirus pandemic, but you'll need to take some extra precautions. Learn exactly how to donate blood safely now.
During Your Appointment
Step 6: Register and Get a Health Check
When you arrive at the collection center, you'll sign in, show your ID, give your address and read some information about eligibility and the donation process.
Next, you'll be asked a series of questions, either via an online form or in a private interview, to determine if it's safe for you to donate and if your blood is safe for others. The questionnaire will touch on your health, travel history, medications, sexual activity and more. It's important to answer all of the questions honestly.
Next, a staff member will take your temperature, measure your pulse and blood pressure and test your hemoglobin levels using a finger stick.
Step 7: Sit Back and Relax
Here's what to expect during the donation itself: While you're lying down or seated comfortably, a staff member will examine your arms to find a suitable vein, clean the area and then insert a new, sterile needle.
"If you're anxious, look away and take a few deep breaths to calm down," Dr. Miller says. Your phone is also a great distraction to take your mind off things.
Although you'll feel a pinch right when the needle goes in, it shouldn't hurt afterward. Let an employee know if you're experiencing any pain. "Also, tell someone if you're feeling lightheaded," Dr. Miller says. "Elevating your legs or having a drink or snack should help."
Try this technique from the American Red Cross to reduce dizziness: Lift one leg slightly, hold for a few seconds, and then lower it back down. Switch sides. Repeat several times on each leg.
In addition to the pint of blood for donation, the collection center will also fill some small test tubes to check your blood for infectious disease.
"Once the procedure is complete, a staffer will place a pressure bandage on your arm," says Ruth Sylvester, director of regulatory services for American's Blood Centers. You'll need to keep the bandage on (and dry) for the next five to six hours to help the area heal.
After Your Donation
Step 8: Refuel
When you're done, a staff member will help you stand and you'll be asked to spend 15 minutes in the canteen to rest up. Grab a seat and a drink or two to replenish your fluids, and let a staff member know if you feel dizzy, nauseous or otherwise unwell.
Before you leave, you'll be given a post-donation information sheet with basic care instructions, symptoms to watch for and a number to call in case you have a problem.
Step 9: Take It Easy
For the rest of the day, avoid heavy lifting, strenuous exercise and too much alcohol. Eat well-balanced meals and drink plenty of fluids.
People seldom experience symptoms post-donation. "But if you do feel lightheaded, lay down and elevate your legs, or sit with your head between your legs," Dr. Miller says.
Step 10: Care for Your Arm
About an hour after leaving the collection center, Dr. Miller suggests removing the elastic wrap from your bandage and gently cleaning the area around the bandage so it doesn't get irritated. You can take off the bandage itself after a few more hours.
"If it starts bleeding again, or you notice swelling or bruising, apply pressure and lift your arm straight up over your head for several minutes," Sylvester says. "An ice pack can help relieve discomfort."
Step 11: Make Your Next Appointment
Someone in the U.S. needs blood every two seconds, according to the American Red Cross — but there's not always enough supply to meet that demand. Be a part of fixing that!
You're eligible to donate whole blood again after eight weeks (56 days), per America's Blood Centers, so get your next appointment on the calendar.
Is This an Emergency?
- American Red Cross: "Medications and Vaccinations"
- American Red Cross: "Eligibility Criteria: Alphabetical"
- American Red Cross: "Give Blood. Find a Drive."
- America's Blood Centers: "Find a Blood Center"
- American Red Cross: "A Student's Guide to Blood Donation"
- American Red Cross: "Blood Needs & Blood Supply"
- U.S. Food & Drug Administration: "Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Provides Updated Guidance to Address the Urgent Need for Blood During the Pandemic"
- America's Blood Centers: "For Donors"
- America's Blood Centers: "Blood Donation FAQs"
- American Red Cross: "What to Do Before, During and After Your Donation"
- American Red Cross: "First Time Donors"
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: "Blood Safety Basics"
- World Health Organization: "Blood Donor Counselling: Implementation Guidelines"
- America's Blood Centers: "Blood Donation 101"