Here's Exactly What to Do After You Get Your COVID Vaccine

You should continue wearing a mask and social distancing even after you get the COVID vaccine.
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Right now, unless you're in a high-risk category, you're probably still waiting for your chance to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

Your turn might be right around the corner — or it might not come for some time. Still, no matter where you are "in line," it helps to have a game plan for what to do in the minutes, days and months after receiving the vaccine, to continue to keep yourself and others safe.

Get tips on how to stay healthy, safe and sane during the novel coronavirus pandemic.

Here are the steps to follow:

1. Make an Appointment for Your Second Dose

Of the three vaccines currently available, from Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson, only the latter is a one-and-done affair. The Pfizer and Moderna vaccines require two doses.

Based on clinical trials, there are specific recommendations for when you need to get your second shot. If you get the Pfizer vaccine, you'll need to get your second dose in 21 days. For the Moderna vaccine, you'll wait 28 days, per the Food & Drug Administration (FDA).

We just don't know how much protection you might get if you get the second shot outside the recommended window.

"Once you receive the first dose, you should leave with a second appointment for the second dose. You can't just say you're going to call later to schedule," Patricia Couto, MD, an infectious disease physician with Orlando Health, tells

2. Watch for a Reaction

News reports of people having an allergic reaction to the vaccine can be alarming. But it's important to keep things in perspective.

According to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, there were 21 cases of anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction) following nearly 1.9 million first doses of the Pfizer vaccine given between December 14 and 23. (That comes out to 11.1 cases per million doses.)

In other words, it's very rare. In fact, your risk of getting sick with COVID-19 (without the vaccine) is much higher than the risk of allergy or anaphylaxis from the vaccine, Rochelle Walensky, MD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), said during a press briefing on January 27.

Most severe reactions happen within the first 15 minutes of receiving the vaccine. For that reason, you should plan on sticking around to be monitored (the health care professional on site will provide guidance here).

But the majority of reactions are mild and might include pain and swelling where you got your shot, fever, chills, tiredness or headache, per the CDC. These reactions are more common after the second dose, Dr. Walensky noted, but nothing to be concerned about — they're a sign that your immune system is responding to the vaccine, and they should go away in a few days.

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3. Continue to Wear a Mask

You might have a collection of masks at your disposal by now, but we know you're ready to get rid of them. Not so fast.

"Just because you are vaccinated, it does not mean you should change any of your proper public health behaviors," Matthew Frieman, PhD, of the department of microbiology and immunology at The University of Maryland School of Medicine, tells

And that's for a few reasons: First, clinical trials haven't concluded whether those who've been vaccinated can still carry and be contagious with the virus, he says. (In other words, you might still be able to get other people sick.)

What's more, "just like any vaccine, not every individual will produce high levels of antibodies. There will still be many people in the community around us that can carry the virus," Frieman says.

This won't change until there are enough people vaccinated. For the safety of you and others, mask up when you're in public.

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4. Stick to Social Distancing

Don't plan any big get-togethers just yet. Even if you're wearing masks, a "post-vaccination party" isn't appropriate. You should still maintain social distance, Frieman says.

While we're at it, here's your daily reminder to keep washing your hands to prevent the spread of COVID (and the flu).

5. Encourage People in Your Life to Get the Vaccine

Only you know how your friends and loved ones will react to your suggestion that they, too, get the vaccine. However, you could start by telling them that you got the vaccine, talking about your experience (did your arm get a bit sore like a flu shot?) and why it was important for you to do so. That alone can help encourage someone to take the same step.

"If someone is eligible for the vaccine, I encourage them to consider it very strongly," Dr. Couto says.

Is This an Emergency?

If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, please see the National Library of Medicine’s list of signs you need emergency medical attention or call 911. If you think you may have COVID-19, use the CDC’s Coronavirus Self-Checker before leaving the house.