As if exercising wasn't hard enough, the different types of exercise can be difficult to understand. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise is an important one to know because they differ in how your body produces energy during exercise. This helps you understand how your body burns fat and how you can build endurance, strength and power to improve your overall fitness and performance.
Aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, and swimming, use oxygen to create energy, whereas anaerobic exercises, such as sprinting and weight lifting, don't use oxygen as part of the energy cycle.
Aerobic Exercise Facts
You're likely familiar with the term aerobic from aerobics classes. Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to create energy. During aerobic exercise, the body primarily burns carbohydrates and fats, which can only be done in the presence of oxygen.
Energy for aerobic activity is produced slowly but in great supply. This type of energy primarily powers activities in which your muscles are used in continuous rhythmic or repetitive motions, moderately increasing your heart rate and respiration while building your physical endurance.
Aerobic exercise can be performed for long periods of time, because there is plenty of energy available. Examples include taking an aerobics class, going for a walk, riding the elliptical machine at the gym or running a marathon.
Read more: How to Increase Aerobic Fitness
Anaerobic Exercise Facts
The anaerobic definition of exercise is simple: anaerobic energy can be created without oxygen. The body breaks down carbohydrates from blood glucose or glucose stored in muscle to produce energy. It can produce this type of energy very quickly but in limited supply.
This type of energy generally lasts between 30 seconds and three minutes, depending on the intensity of the activity. The more intense the activity is, the faster your body uses its quick anaerobic energy supply. That means you can only sustain very intense activities for a short period of time.
Read more: Aerobic Exercise Adaptation
Benefits of Aerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise strengthens your heart and reduces your resting heart rate, while increasing the number of red blood cells that help distribute oxygen throughout your body. It also helps with weight loss if you combine it with a healthy, calorie-controlled diet.
Aerobic exercise can also potentially reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, diabetes and some forms of cancer; and it can improve your immune system and stamina.
Benefits of Anaerobic Exercise
Anaerobic exercise strengthens your bones and muscles and builds muscle mass and power. Anaerobic exercise can also improve endurance and cardiorespiratory efficiency by increasing VO2 max. VO2 max is a measure of your body's ability to take up and use oxygen during exercise.
Anaerobic exercise is also effective at burning fat because it increases your metabolism. Intense anaerobic exercise increases your metabolic burn in the 24 hours following your workout, but it also builds muscle which leads to improved metabolism all the time.
How Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises Work Together
Aerobic vs. anaerobic exercise: It's a topic that comes up often. But the good news is, the two systems can work together. That's because how your body creates energy isn't black and white. In many situations, your body may draw on both types of energy. For example, sports like soccer, tennis and volleyball require endurance — supported by aerobic energy — but they may also require short, powerful bursts — supported by anaerobic energy.
In addition, when you first start an aerobic activity, such as going for a run, your body uses anaerobic energy because it's readily available. Once that store has run out, your body turns to aerobic energy for the rest of your workout.
Read more: Example of Anaerobic Exercise
- American Council on Exercise: Aerobic Capacity
- National Strength and Conditioning Association: Aerobic Endurance Training Strategies
- Mayo Clinic: Aerobic Exercise
- Mayo Clinic: Fitness Strength Training
- Fitness.gov: President’s Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition: Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans