Running and sprinting are vigorous, high-intensity exercises. While they both use the same muscle groups, the difference lies in speed. Sprinting is a more powerful, faster form of running that can only be performed in short bursts.
Running is a form of cardiovascular exercise that is performed for at least 10 minutes to be considered aerobic, using oxygen to primarily fuel your muscle cells.
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Though there's no set speed that classifies a run, you typically run at a speed that causes you to breathe heavier and break a sweat. During competition, popular running races include the 5k, 10k, half marathon and full marathon.
When they sprint, runners maintain their full speed for the entire duration. In competition, sprint races include the 100-, 200-, and 400-meter dash and are typically run in less than 60 seconds.
When you begin to sprint you cross into an anaerobic zone and use glycogen rather than oxygen to fuel your muscle cells. The buildup of glycogen produces lactic acid which makes you quickly feel fatigue and, in some cases, a burning sensation in your muscles. This is why a sprint cannot be held for long distances or durations.
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