Weighted vests apply deep pressure to calm the nervous system. They also provide trunk stability. The vests are used for children and adults who have sensory-processing disorders, such as autism and attention-deficit disorder, and movement disorders, such as ataxia, Parkinson's disease, dystonia and ataxic cerebral palsy. The vests are also used for stress reduction in individuals with anxiety or Tourette's syndrome. General guidelines exist regarding the amount of weight to use and the length of time to wear the vest; however, no standard guidelines exist.
Deep pressure has a calming effect on individuals with sensory-processing disorders. The inability to properly process sensory information makes performing routine daily activities and learning difficult, because the lack of response or the exaggerated response to sensory stimuli causes these individuals to become easily distracted, agitated and/or less attentive. The deep pressure works on the central nervous system and aids in the processing of sensory information so that individuals with sensory-processing disorders can perform routine tasks in an organized, attentive and calm manner.
External trunk stability is important in people with movement disorders. The placement of the weight in the weighted vests helps achieve the necessary trunk stability. Placement of the weight on the shoulder girdle provides greater trunk stability and greater spinal support and creates deep pressure around the chest and upper back.
How the Weighted Vest Works
Weighted vests are designed to be worn over regular clothing, and some are designed to look like normal clothing. The weights are not visible from the outside of the vest. The weighted vests apply deep, constant pressure, which provides a calming effect on the central nervous system resulting in more purposeful movements, increased attention and decreased agitation. This allows those wearing the vests to be more organized in their movements and show greater attention to tasks. Some research, however, has shown that children with developmental delays and autism demonstrated no difference in their attention-to-task behaviors.
At the time of publication, only general guidelines exist regarding the weighted vests. The length of time and the amount of weight to place inside the vests are the two general guidelines. Practitioners generally recommend that the vest be worn no longer than one hour at time and that the weight be no more than 5 percent of a person's total body weight. These recommendations are guidelines, however; they can and should vary from individual to individual. Some researchers caution that improper use and adverse effects could result without the implementation of standard guidelines.
- The American Journal of Occupational Therapy; The Use of a Weighted Vest to Increase On-Task Behavior in Children with Attention Deficits; NL VandenBerg
- The American Journal of Occupational Therapy; Effects of a Weighted Vest on Attention to Task and Self-Stimulatory Behaviors in Preschoolers With Pervasive Developmental Disorders; Doreen Fertel-Daly et al.
- Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities; Effect of Weighted Vests on the Engagement of Children With Developmental Delays and Autism; Brian Reichow et al.
- JNPT, Balance-Based Torso-Weighting in a Patient with Ataxia and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report; Cynthia Gibson-Horn, PT
- The American Journal of Occupational Therapy; Effects of Weighted Vests on Attention, Impulse Control, and On-Task Behavior in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; H. Y. Lin et al.