Americans are not strangers to refined sugar. But eating too many foods with refined sugars, like pastries and sweet cereals, is linked to lead to myriad health problems, including weight gain and obesity, type 2 diabetes and heart disease, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
While some people opt to follow a no-sugar diet for various reasons, most would benefit from simply cutting back on foods with refined sugar. Your body doesn't need any refined sugar to function, and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends limiting added sugars to 100 to 150 calories per day (6 and 9 teaspoons, respectively).
In order to limit your intake of refined sugar, you'll need to understand what it is and where to find it. So let's break down the different kinds of sugar found in food.
Are You Eating Too Much Sugar?
Natural vs. Refined Sugars
Refined sugars are those that have been processed, such as cane sugar, as opposed to the natural sugars found in fruit and milk. The most common refined sugar is table sugar, or sucrose, but there are also powdered sugars, syrups and natural processed sugars.
In order to make refined sugar, the original product, which comes from either sugar cane or sugar beets, is processed to remove impurities and color, according to the Cancer Treatment Centers of America. The sugar is then softened and separated to yield the white, pure sugar recognized as table sugar.
While most of us know basic table sugar that you'd add to coffee or tea, there are a number of different types of refined sugars.
Examples of Refined Sugar
1. Granulated Sugar
Granulated sugar is a common type of refined sugar that's often used in coffee and tea, in baking and found in most homes. Granulated sugar can be used to sweeten beverages and is added to sauces and marinades.
2. Natural Processed Sugars
While often positioned as healthier, sweeteners like agave, honey and maple syrup are considered "natural processed sugars." When eaten in excess, they can have the same negative health effects as standard table sugar, per Oregon State University.
Still, these "natural processed sugars" have to be refined to be added into other products, so they're not the same kind of natural sugar you'd find in, say, an apple.
In order to avoid this type of sugar, compare the amount of sugar between juices and watch out for anything above a certain range. You should also read the ingredients on the product's label to ensure that there are no added sugars sneaking in.
3. Powdered Sugar
Powdered sugar, or confectioner's sugar, is another type of refined sugar that also tends to be a pantry staple. This type of sugar has a much smoother texture than other types of refined sugars.
It's commonly used in icings and similar dessert toppings because it mixes easily and creates a smooth product. It's also the type you might see coating a doughnut because its fine texture helps it stick to food surfaces.
4. High-Fructose Corn Syrup
There's a lot of controversy surrounding high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS); some claim it's better than granulated sugar, while others claim it's worse.
Either way, HFCS is refined sugar, so you'll want to limit how much of it you include in your diet, per the Mayo Clinic. High-fructose corn syrup is chemically similar to table sugar and is commonly found in sodas and fruit-flavored beverages.
Examples of Natural Sugars
When it comes to sugar, you'll want to stick to the type that's naturally found in food and isn't processed and added to foods during the manufacturing provess. You'll find naturally occurring sugar in the following foods, per the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center:
The natural sugar found in milk and bananas provide our bodies' main source of energy, and they also contain various amounts of vitamins and minerals that help keep your body running smoothly. So, consider natural sources of sugar the healthiest sugar.
How to Avoid Refined Sugar
The good news: Sugar only causes health issues when it's consumed in excess, per a November 2016 issue of the European Journal of Nutrition. It's not necessary to fully cut out refined sugars, but it will be helpful to greatly reduce your intake. Here's how.
1. Read Labels
To eat less refined sugar, you'll want to read nutrition labels. Nutrition labels now include the total amount of sugar as well as the total amount of added sugar (aka refined sugar), per the FDA. This is a good place to start.
It's especially important to keep an eye out for the refined sugar hiding in plain sight. The following terms represent different types of refined sugar, per Harvard Health Publishing:
- agave nectar
- brown sugar
- cane crystals
- cane sugar
- corn sweetener
- corn syrup
- crystalline fructose
- evaporated cane juice
- fruit juice concentrates
- high-fructose corn syrup
- invert sugar
- malt sugar
- malt syrup
- maple syrup
- raw sugar
2. Be Mindful of Refined Carbohydrates
Refined carbohydrates, also known as simple carbs, contain refined sugar. These foods, which include white flour and bread, pasta, cookies and many cereals, have been stripped of the naturally occurring fiber and nutrients that are found in unrefined carbs, per the AHA.
Refined carbs are considered "processed" and so it shouldn't come as a surprise that they often contain refined sugar, too.
The body quickly digests these simple carbs and sends glucose into the bloodstream quickly. Conversely, complex or unrefined carbs, which include foods like whole grains, fruit, starchy vegetables and legumes, are digested slowly and provide the body with sustained amounts of energy it needs to function, per the AHA. Prioritize unrefined carbs to avoid the negative effects of refined sugars.
3. Cut Back on Liquid Calories
Sodas and fruit juices are standard sources of refined sugar. Swap these beverages for water or fruit and vegetable juices of which you know the ingredients.
4. Choose Natural Sources of Sweetness
When your sweet tooth is being loud, satisfy it with naturally occurring sugars, which you'll find in foods like fruit and milk.
5. Pick Full-Fat Versions of Your Favorite Foods
While you may think you're doing your body a favor by buying low-fat foods, these products often contain added sugar to make up for what's lost in the fat department.
This is exemplified in a January 2016 comparison in Nutrition & Diabetes, which found that there's often more sugar in the low-fat (that is, reduced-calorie, light, low-fat) and non-fat versions of food than regular items. In many cases, that full-fat yogurt is going to contain fewer added sugars than its low-fat counterpart. Read the label to be sure.
- Choose My Plate: “Added Sugars”
- USFDA: “High Fructose Corn Syrup Questions and Answers”
- European Journal of Nutrition: “Controversies About Sugars: Results from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses on Obesity, Cardiometabolic Disease and Diabetes”
- Harvard University: “Natural and Added Sugars: Two Sides of the Same Coin”
- CDC: “Know Your Limit for Added Sugars”
- USDA: " Full Report (All Nutrients): 45311987, ORANGE JUICE, UPC: 048500201244"
- CDC: "Get the Facts: Added Sugars and Consumption"
- American Heart Association: "Added Sugars"
- Cancer Treatment Centers of America: "Natural vs. refined sugars: What's the difference?"
- Journal of Food Composition and Analysis: "Added sugars: Definition and estimation in the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Databases"
- Oregon State University: "Processed sugars vs. natural sugars: What’s the difference?"
- Angeles Institute: "Daily Sugar Intake"
- Harvard Health Publishing: "How to spot — and avoid — added sugar"
- FDA: "Added Sugars on the New Nutrition Facts Label"
- Nutrition & Diabetes: "A systematic comparison of sugar content in low-fat vs regular versions of food"
- Mayo Clinic: "What is high-fructose corn syrup? What are the health concerns?"
- UPMC: "Naturally occurring and added sugar"
- American Heart Association: "Carbohydrates"