Anesthetics are medications designed to help manage pain by either decreasing pain to tolerable levels or blocking pain outright, according to MedlinePlus, a service of the National Institutes of Health. Local anesthesia is an anesthetic that affects the specific body part where it is administered. This form of anesthesia does not induce unconsciousness and is usually administered via injection, although local anesthesia is also available in nasal spray and gel form.
Hemorrhaging and Infection
Local anesthesia may cause hemorrhaging or bleeding when administered via injection, notes MedlinePlus. The injection site may become infected. Nevertheless, the chances of excessive bleeding and infection are low, especially if the proper precautions are taken.
Impaired Mental Clarity
Normal mental functions can become impaired by local anesthesia, notes Drugs.com. This is because local anesthesia can impede the ability to think clearly due to possible unintended psychotropic effects. The precise duration and degree of impaired mental clarity may vary depending on the specific local anesthesia used. Nevertheless, until the effects of the local anesthesia have worn off, significant decisions should be postponed.
Impaired Respiratory Function
Respiratory function may be impaired by local anesthesia, notes MedlinePlus. The specific degree to which respiratory function is impaired depends on the kind of local anesthesia used. The patient's medical history, local anesthesia type and dosage should be considered carefully prior to administering local anesthesia.
Local anesthesia may cause long-term neural damage, explains MedlinePlus; however, such a side effect is uncommon.
Using local anesthesia carries the risk of a possible allergic reaction, according to the American Pregnancy Association. Nevertheless, the risk of this side effect occurring can be greatly reduced if factors such as medical history and patient allergies to medication are thoroughly considered prior to administering the local anesthesia.
Pain may not be blocked completely by local anesthesia, notes Drugs.com. The reasons for this are varied. Switching from local to general anesthesia may be necessary if the pain experienced exceeds the patient's tolerance level.
Prolonged Anesthetic Effects
Local anesthesia may take a longer time than expected to wear off, notes Drugs.com. This side effect depends upon the patient and type of local anesthesia used.
Swelling of Affected Area
Swelling may occur at the site where the local anesthesia was administered, according to the American Pregnancy Association.
Temporary Impaired Movement
Local anesthesia can impair movement and the overall utility of the affected area, notes MedlinePlus. The muscles in the affected area may be unresponsive and may even feel weaker than usual.