Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is a rare but serious condition in which the skin and mucus membranes -- the moist surfaces in the mouth, nose and eyes -- react severely to a medication or infection. While the later stages of the condition are characterized by painful rash, blisters and shedding of skin, the early signs are often more subtle.
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Fever and Malaise
According to a 2011 paper in the "Expert Review of Clinical Immunology," the earliest signs of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, or SJS, are often fever and malaise, a vague feeling of body discomfort, such as achy joints and generalized soreness. These symptoms are similar to those of the flu and are often overlooked as being the start of the more serious SJS response. In cases involving a reaction to medication, which accounts for 75 percent of SJS cases, these flu-like symptoms usually arise within 4 to 28 days of starting the drug.
Cough and Sore Throat
The delicate membranes in the respiratory system can be involved in SJS and therefore an early onset cough and sore throat are reported by many SJS sufferers. The cough is typically a dry, nonproductive cough arising from increasingly irritated membranes in the airway and lungs.
As the moist membranes of the eyes begin to be affected, patients will notice that the eyes begin to burn; become dry, irritated and red; and may sometimes have a mucus discharge. Later in the disease, the inside of the lids may develop scars and attachments to the eye.
After the onset of the earliest SJS symptoms, a red or purple skin rash develops and will slowly spread and worsen over the course of hours to days. Rarely does the skin develop blisters in the early stages of SJS skin rash. The rash may also arise in the form of sores around the mouth. Later, the skin may develop blisters and will begin to detach and slough off.
When to Seek Help
Contact a physician immediately if you notice a pattern of symptoms similar to SJS, particularly after beginning a new medication with a known association with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. The "Expert Review of Clinical Immunology" notes that drugs with the highest known risk for SJS are allopurinol; carbamazapine (Tegretol); trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra); lamotrigine (Lamictal); nevirapine (Viramune); phenobarbital (Donnatal); and phenytoin (Dilantin). Men and women are equally likely to develop SJS, and it can affect people of all ages and races.
REFERENCES & RESOURCES
- Expert Review of Clinical Immunology: The Current Understanding of Stevens–Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis
- InformaHealthcare: Stevens‐Johnson Syndrome -- Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management
- Stevens Johnson Syndrome Foundation: SJS Fact Sheet
- The Skin Association: Stevens Johnson Syndrome
- Stevens Johnson Syndrome Foundation