There are several ways to establish a fish farm. You can raise fish in a natural or man-made outdoor body of water, such as a lake or river, by placing barriers between your farmed fish and other aquatic wildlife. You may also use above-ground tanks and filters to construct a fish farm away from a natural water source. In addition to the basic requirements of almost any business, there are some specific tools and equipment you will need for a fish farm.
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Boats and Docks
For an outdoor fish farm, you may need to move over your captive fish in order to feed, monitor and harvest them. A modular or movable floating dock will allow access to your fish while providing enough surface area to hold feed, nets and other equipment. If you have less equipment, or if you need to cover a larger area more quickly, use a motorized boat to move over your fish farm. Any type of boat will work, including durable inflatable rafts and aluminum fishing boats, provided it has enough capacity to accommodate all of your cargo.
Submersible Cages and Nets
For an outdoor pond, separate your farmed fish from other fish in the lake with submersible netting or a cage. Cages may be made of any durable material, such as plastic or metal, and are essentially mesh or perforated walls that allow water to flow through while preventing unwanted fish from entering and disrupting your livestock. Nets have the same effect, but are more flexible and collapsible for easy storage and transport outside of the water.
Aerators and Diffusers
An aerator can either be a stationary air pump that circulates oxygen into the water through attached tubing, or it can be floated on a movable platform in order to move across the surface of the water. A diffuser is made of porous media such as stone, wood or rubber. As air passes through rubber tubing into the diffuser, the medium ejects it as tiny bubbles, which dissolve more readily into the water.
Filters and Tanks
For above-ground fish farms, in which you do not use a natural body of water, use large tanks or pools to house your fish. Aeration is especially important for these systems, as there is no natural circulation by which oxygenated water can enter the farming area. You will also need filters which maintain the health and livability of the water as it cycles through various concentrations of ammonia, nitrates and nitrites as the waste from your fish goes through chemical changes.