Tonsils, part of the human body's lymphatic system, assist in with the immune response. Found in the back of the throat, these glands may enlarge, leading to snoring and sleep apnea, recurring sore throats, bad breath and difficulty swallowing. Treatment options exist, from tonsil removal to avoiding irritants to antibiotics. Swollen tonsils may be caused by a number of medical conditions, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, smoking and tonsillitis.
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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
A study presented at the 2007 American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation Annual Meeting reveals a connection between gastroesophageal reflux disease, also known as GERD, and enlarged tonsils. According to MayoClinic.com, GERD occurs when stomach acid and bile flows from the stomach back into the esophagus, which irritates the lining of the esophagus. GERD is a chronic condition, but symptoms, including swollen tonsils, can be controlled through lifestyle changes, over-the-counter and prescription medications, acupuncture, herbal and relaxation therapies and surgery.
Reaction to allergens and irritants, including cigarette smoke, may cause the tonsils to swell. According to physicians at the Ear, Nose and Throat Center of South Denver, Littleton & Highlands Ranch in Colorado, smoking remains the primary cause of tonsil cancer, also associated with swollen tonsils. A tonsillectomy and radiation may be recommended for smaller tumors; neck dissection and jaw bone resection combined with radiation may be needed for larger tonsils.
Tonsillitis, an infection of the tonsils, usually occurs as a result of viral and bacterial infections, according to MayoClinic.com. The most common cause is Streptococcus pyogenes, the bacteria responsible for strep throat. Aside from red, swollen tonsils, symptoms of tonsillitis include sore throat, white or yellow patches visible on the tonsils, painful swallowing, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, stiff neck, bad breath and headache. Physicians prescribe antibiotics to clear up the infection; however, recurring and chronic tonsillitis may require surgery to remove the tonsils permanently.