Both provolone cheese and American cheese are fairly high in fat. However, provolone cheese is a more beneficial option because it contains significantly higher levels of nutrients such as calcium, protein and vitamin A. You should eat either type of cheese only in moderation, however, and you should maintain healthy levels of physical activity to prevent unhealthy weight gain.
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One ounce of provolone cheese contains 7.6 grams of total fat; the same amount of American cheese contains 7.2 grams -- not a significant difference. However, both types of cheese are fairly high in fat content per serving, which can be unhealthy if you already eat a high fat diet. According to the American Heart Association, your total fat consumption should be no more than 25 to 35 percent of your total daily caloric allowance.
Saturated fat content is actually more of a health concern than total fat content. Consuming too much saturated fat can increase your risk for conditions such as stroke or heart disease, so no more than 7 percent of your total daily caloric intake should come from saturated fats. You get 4.9 grams of saturated fat in each ounce of provolone cheese, and 4.2 grams in each ounce of American cheese.
The impact of both cheeses' saturated fat content on your health can be escalated by their dietary cholesterol content. Both saturated fat and cholesterol have the potential to increase your levels of harmful blood cholesterol, which can increase your risk for heart disease or stroke. Therefore, you should make sure you do not consume more than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day. Provolone cheese contains 19.6 milligrams of cholesterol per ounce, while American cheese contains 22.7 milligrams per ounce.
Excess sodium consumption also can potentially contribute to elevated blood pressure, stroke and heart disease. Your risk for unhealthy sodium consumption is particularly high if you eat significant amounts of processed snacks and other refined foods, as they tend to be particularly high in added sodium. The Mayo Clinic recommends that most people consume no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day. Provolone cheese contains 248.8 milligrams of sodium per ounce; American cheese is significantly higher, with 359.3 milligrams per ounce.